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What are the characteristics of friend functions?

Friend functions are not a part of the class and are external. This function is a “Friend” of a class. This is to say, it has special privileges to access to the class’s private and protected members.

A friend function is not in the scope of the class n which it has been declared as friend.
It cannot be called using the object of that class.
It can be invoked like a normal function without any object.
Unlike member functions, it cannot use the member names directly.
It can be declared in public or private part without affecting its meaning.
Usually, it has objects as arguments.

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